Danilo Cialoni

Ritratto Danilo Cialoni

Neuroscience, Technology, and Society, XXXV series
Grant sponsor

DAN Europe Foundation

Gerardo Bosco

GianAntonio Susto

Project description
The popularity of extreme sport and activities in remotes areas is steadily increasing together with the number of participants and correlated diseases per year. Caused by the changes in ambient pressure divers, as well as mountaineers and astronauts/pilots, by a specific disease involving several organs with consequences that can be dramatic when the brain and spinal cord are interested. Until today all the emergencies in remote areas are, at best, managed by a telephone interview, without any physiological data real-time evaluation by the physician involved in the assistance. This kind of current service shows evident weaknesses:it is based exclusively on a telephone contact; there are no automatic mechanisms to intercept and prevent critical situations; is impossible to send automatic alarms in case of need; it assumes that the injured have available telephone network coverage; it assumes that the injured can actively interact with the emergency alarm centre or that other participants can do it; all the health information is collected by telephone interview without any “real” physiological data obtained by the patient. As a consequence, all the decisions and actions are prone to significant assessment errors and operative decisions. The object of AVATAR proposal: focuses on developing and assemble the technologies able to monitor, record, transmit, process physiological data, and, as consequence, provide assistance in case of emergencies in extreme environments. The project aims at providing real-time physiological and environmental information from remote areas and to develop specific algorithms to elaborate on this information. Innovative medical wearable devices and environmental sensors able to collected, transmit and manage data are the core of the project. The wearable monitoring systems (Figure 1) based on smart garments are able to detect ECG, breath rate, blood oxygen saturation and position of body, all data are available in real-time by a dedicated application allowing the transmission from a smartphone directly to a control centre able to receive and manage bi-directional change of information supported by augmented and virtual reality. Environmental data collection (Figure 2) and physiological data transmission can be realized by different kinds of dedicated devices ensuring a preliminary data analysis to intercept risk condition and to produce an automatic alert in case of need and provide appropriate instructions to:
• improve the quality of assistance for people in difficulty in remote areas;
• improve a better differential diagnosis in case of symptoms of a disease that occur in hostile environments and in the absence of a medically trained person on site;
• improve the management of emergencies needing immediate treatment for both the medical evacuation and cost optimization;
• reduce the numbers of diagnostic errors due to non-correct information provided by the injured of bystanders;
• reduce the serious consequences of any delay in proper diagnosis;
• reduce the fatal cases and the disabling sequelae of remote emergencies and disease by a quick and correct diagnosis;
• reduce the delay of appropriate treatment.